The Lighthouse in the Ocean of Chan


Chapter 3 The Second Story of the Lighthouse: Exit


Section 1 Selected Disclosures and Koans Relative to the Exit Stage

Section 2 Examples of Conditions for Attainment at the Present Stage

Section 3 Selected Koans with Different-Stage Answers

Section 3.1 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "The Intention of Bodhidharma's Coming from the West"

Section 3.2 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Family Style"

Section 3.3 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Ox Herding"

Section 3.4 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Duster"

Section 3.5 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Glancing Sutra"

Section 3.6 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Sending a Letter"

Section 3.7 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Mind"

Section 3.8 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Body"

Section 3.9 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Environment"

Section 3.10 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Still Coming to the Feast?"

The entrance does not establish for you any position, so how could there be a so-called exit? It is only because once you have a pathless path, then you stick there, that words are employed to talk about an exit. The position which one arrives without traveling, as long as one does not attach to it, would have been exited without taking a single step. In fact, the place of renunciation as mentioned in Chapter One, the place of entrance as mentioned in Chapter Two, and the place of exit as mentioned in this chapter are not different places. Simply because you have various clingings, clinging to secular life and to desires, that renunciation is mentioned. For correspondence with Chan, entrance is mentioned. Attaching to Chan like a stagnant sea, therefore exit is mentioned. Definitely had better not to misunderstand. What I talk about here are not different locations, nor have they been taken all together as a whole, disregarding the differences between earlier and later states. Should know that although the location has never changed, nevertheless, due to variations in depth of Chan attainment and merits of realization, there are yet different states. For example, the measure of realization as indicated through the koans chosen in Section 1 of this chapter, when compared with that as indicated through the koans listed in the previous chapter, is very different. Furthermore, the koans listed in Section 3 "Selected Koans with Different-Stage Answers" of this chapter, when compared with those listed in the previous chapter, are marked with obvious differences. There is not a bit of carelessness, nor could there be a bit of blur.

Section 1 Selected Disclosures and Koans Relative to the Exit Stage

Wen Yan of Yun Men mounted the rostrum to reveal his teachings. Suddenly he drew a line on the ground with his cane and said, "Always here." Then he drew another line and said, "Always exit from here." Jian says, "The first draw is the first stage of entrance; the second draw is the present stage of exit. This word 'exit' was spoken by the ancients, and is also spoken by me now."

Chuan Zi told Jia Shan, "It simply needs to be: where the body is hidden is without traces, while where there is no traces should not hide the body." Jian says, "The latter saying 'should not hide the body' is teaching you to vacate this host position, and that counts as an exit. It is not the case that there is a new region to get to after exiting."

A monk asked Chan teacher Fan, "Not to set up the stand of awareness, is there still a way to exit the body or not?" "Yes." "Where to exit the body?" "Exited." Jian says, "Chan teachers often offer an answer based on the question encountered. The monk asked about where to exit the body; the unfolding of this doubt is squarely an exit."

Shen Hui came from Cao Xi. Xing Si asked him, "How is the essential meaning of Cao Xi?" Shen Hui thereupon straightened his body and stood up. Xing Si said, "Still with residue of debris." Shen Hui said, "Isn't it the case that monk here have real gold or not?" "If so, where could you hold onto?" Jian says, "From this koan you would know that straightening the body and standing up is exactly his entrance. Xing Si said 'if so' and asked 'where to hold onto' thereby to teach him not to hold onto an entrance. Shen Hui right then lost the corpse that he straightened and stood up; that counts as a proper exit."

Ru Bao picked up the cushion and said, "All Buddhas and sages who have entered truth exit from here," then dropped it.

Gu Shan said, "Want to know this matter; it is like a sword." A monk asked, "The learner is a corpse; how is the sword?" Gu Shan said, "Drag this corpse out." The monk consented and exited. When Shan heard that the monk had left he said, "Should have given him a good caning." Jian says, "The corpse is a matter of the first stage of entrance. Were it Manjusri's Sword of Wisdom, it could let people die, it could also let people live. 'Drag this corpse out' is the sword that let people live; this is a matter of the present stage of exit. But then why to receive the caning? Its significance lies at the third stage of use as exhibited in the next chapter. After exited, if it is completely useless, wouldn't that remain a traveling corpse and walking meat? Those ancients, who comprehended exit but failed to comprehend use, often cannot avoid this caning. Were that monk smart, he could have plucked a blade of grass outside the gate of the monastery, then returned and said to Gu Shan, 'How does your sword compare with this grass?' He would have answered at the third stage of use."

Upon Pu Yuan's arrival, Hui Zhong asked about where from. Pu Yuan said, "Jiang Xi." "Could you still fetch the image of Ma Zu here?" "This is it." "What is behind?" Thereupon Pu Yuan retired. Later Ling of Chang Qing said, "Almost as if he did not understand." Zhan of Bao Fu said, "Almost did not arrive monk here." Jian says, "This one has not display the front." Actually, he turned around to retire, thereby had displayed even what is behind. Posterity, in practicing observation, often observe only what is in front, and consider that as having done the right thing. Seeing this koan one would know that that kind of practice is incomplete. The ancients say, "The opportunity before your eyes is not the current opportunity."

Dan Yuan asked Hui Zhong, "Hundred years later someone asks about the ultimate matter, how to respond?" Hui said, "Have pity on yourself! What is the need to have an amulet?"

Yin Feng left Ma Zu to visit Shi Tou; Ma Zu said, "The path to Shi Tou is slippery." Yin Feng said, "Carrying poles and rods to play according to the occasion." Upon arrival he circled around Shi Tou three times, shook his tin staff and asked, "What is the doctrine?" Shi Tou said, "Heavens! Heavens!" Yin had nothing to say and returned to Ma Zu. Ma Zu said, "Go there again. Wait till he says, 'Heavens!' then you shush." Yin Feng went and asked as before; Shi Tou, however, shushed first. Yin again had nothing to say and returned. Ma Zu said, "I told you 'the path to Shi Tou is slippery.'" Jian says, "The thrice circling of Yin Feng remained dead within the form of roundness; it belongs to the first stage of entrance. Shi Tou cried, 'Heavens! Heavens!' to mourn his 'death.' Ma Zu rescued him by telling him to shush. However, Shi Tou had supernatural power, so before Yin Feng's shush he gave first the same rescue. The shush here is simply an act of exhaling through the mouth."

A monk asked Xi Tang, "When neither asking nor answering, how?" Xi Tang said, "Why worry about being rotten?" Huai Hai heard it and said, "I have always doubted this old brother." A monk said, "Please, monk says it." Huai Hai said, "The unified form is unattainable." Jian says, "Not afraid of rotting is to remain constantly within the unified form, not understanding to exit."

Bao Che and Tian Ran toured together. Bao Che saw fish in the water and used hand to point at it. Tian Ran said, "Tian Ran! Tian Ran!" The next day, Bao asked Tian Ran again, "What was the intention yesterday?" Tian Ran thereupon laid down his body and simulated a fish. Bao Che said, "Heavens!" Jian says, "Tian Ran at that time was dead stuck in the stage of entrance. Therefore, say instead, 'Saw fish yesterday; no other meanings.' This would have switched the koan to the stage of use."

A monk asked Guang Cheng, "How is the original man?" "Sitting together without acquaintance." "Thus would be this learner." He saluted in thanks and left. "To whom could the secret note of worries be sent?" Jian says, "At the first stage one realizes only the 'sitting together' without realizing the 'no acquaintance.' 'No acquaintance' is one of the Four Prohibitions of Cao Shan called 'Do not put on the original clothing.' 'To whom could it be sent?' is of the same purport."

Pu Yuan once said, "Last night at the third watch Manjusri and Samantabhadra were given twenty blows each and ousted already." Jian says, "Try going back to the koan 'Manjusri and Samantabhadra are always here' of the first stage, you would see where the boundary lies between the first stage of entrance and the present stage of exit." His disciple Zhao Zhou heard this saying about ousting, he retorted, "Who was supposed to take the twenty blows?" Pu said, "Just say where Teacher Wang (Pu Yuan) erred?" Zhao Zhou saluted him in apology and left. Jian further adds, "Ousting is where Pu Yuan attained the second stage of exit. Zhao Zhou's question intended to eradicate even the function of his second stage. The essence of his reply did not lie in the apologetic salute, but in the exit. The significance of that exit was twofold; that exit almost entered the fourth stage of finish. This person has a great admiration for Zhao Zhou; and yet to those well-known Chan masters with great merits who has crowds of followers and great vacuous reputation, dares not applaud blindly."

Pu Yuan was going to visit a farm. In a dream the local god of earth informed the master of the farm about it, and hence the master prepared food offering in advance. The next morning Pu Yuan arrived as foretold. The master told him about the dream. Pu Yuan said, "Lack of strength in practice, got peeped at by deities." A monk asked, "Why got peeped at?" Pu said, "Before the local god of earth should eat one more share of rice." Jian says, "This 'one share of rice' and the 'Manjusri ousted' of the previous koan are of the same attainment. It is not to make offering to the local god of earth, but to make efforts in thoroughly vacating the clinging state of mind that could be peeped at by deities, that counts as effective practice. Today's ordinary superficial Chan people would, on the contrary, consider it an honor to have been prophesied by the local god of earth. Ancients are like this, why not reflect? I once read Japanese Patriarchs' koans, and this koan was considered as saying 'Should make great efforts.'"

Huang Bo occupied the First Seat, saw Pu Yuan arrived, but did not stand up. Pu asked, "Which year did Elder start practicing Tao?" Huang said, "In the age of the King of Sunyata Buddha!" Pu said, "Still a grandson of Teacher Wang (Pu Yuan); get off!" Jian says, "Huang was stuck at 'the age of the King of Sunyata Buddha,' and that was pointed out by Teacher Wang, so he had to get off." Jian says instead, "Do you want to know when that year was? That is beyond your share!" Then Huang could have continued to monopolize the seat.

Chan teacher Cao invited Monk Mi to dinner without setting up a seat for him. Mi spread out his kneeling mat and did prostration; Cao got off his seat, and Mi took Cao's seat, thereupon Cao sat on the ground. After the meal, Mi's followers mocked Cao for having his seat taken away. Cao said, "If he returns in three days, he could be saved." Three days later Mi did return, and said, "Day before yesterday encountered thief." Jian says, "The second stage was stolen by thief with only the first stage remaining. Who told you to stick fast to the original seat without knowing to exit!"

A monk asked Hui Tong, "After having visited Pu Yuan, how?" Hui remained silent. The monk said, "What was monk's view before visiting Pu Yuan?" Hui said, "It could not have been otherwise." The monk reported the meeting to Jing Cen. Jing Cen showed him a gatha as follows:

He who stays unmoved at the top of a thousand-foot pole,
Although has gained strength, is not completely true yet;
Taking another step from the top of the thousand-foot pole,
The world encompassing the ten directions is the whole body.

Cong Shen (Zhao Zhou) was serving as a cook in the monastery. He closed the door, with the room completely filled with smoke and fire, shouted, "Fire! Fire!" When people arrived, he said, "I'll open the door if you can say it." The assembly had no reply. His teacher Pu Yuan passed him a lock through the window, Cong then opened the door. Jian says, "Zhao Zhou was using this occasion to show the assembly that one should not lock oneself up in the first stage. Were I among the assembly, I would have asked him, 'Who lock you in? To untie the bell it depends on the one who tied it in the first place. I cannot save you!' If it were said like this, Teacher Wang's passing him a lock through the window would have been superfluous."

Cong Shen went over to Huang Bo. Huang shut the door, Cong thereupon fetched a fire, went into the Dharma hall and shouted, "Fire! Fire!" Huang thereby came out, grabbed Cong and said, "Say! Say!" Cong said, "Drawing the bow after the thief is gone." Jian says, "This is a double koan." Huang shut the door to show Cong Shen the first stage of entrance. Cong Shen recognized his first stage of entrance, and shouted "Fire! Fire!" in the Dharma hall to show Huang Bo that one should exit from here. Huang came out, grabbed Cong Shen and pressed him to say at once, in order to see whether he knows about exit. Who would know that Cong Shen had already comprehended it, therefore he reproached Huang for drawing the bow after the thief was gone. Since Huang had opened the door and come out, that amounts to the thief was already gone, why need to say it separately? Saying it separately would become a belated drawing of the bow. Therefore, this koan is duplex. It is not only Huang Bo showing Cong Shen, should know that it is also Cong Shen showing Huang Bo. If the reader turns back to read this koan again, then could thoroughly understand the flavor of exit.

Cong Shen arrived at Bao Shou's place. Bao Shou saw him arrived, thereupon sat backwards. Cong thereupon did prostration. Bao Shou got off the seat. Cong then exited. Jian says, "Cong Shen and Bao Shou both then exactly indicated the second stage of exit: Bao Shou's getting off the seat was exactly like Cong Shen's exiting. Readers may turn back to read the earlier koan in which Monk Mi occupied Chan teacher Cao's seat without getting off, and make a comparison."

A monk asked Cong Shen, "What is called 'the mystery of mysteries'?" Cong Shen said, "How much time since you were in the mystery?" "Already long time!" "Had not met old monk, almost been killed by the mystery."

Cong Shen raised bowl and said, "Thirty years later, if you will see old monk, keep it for receiving offerings; if not, smash it right away." A monk stepped out of the ranks and said, "Thirty years later dare say seeing monk?" Cong thereupon smashed the bowl. Jian says, "If it were not smashed, it cannot be considered as real seeing. If Jian were there, it would not be difficult to preserve this bowl. Just say, 'Seeing or not seeing, temporarily leave these two sides aside. Thirty years later, it won't do any harm to lend it to me for my use.' The reader may comprehend this by studying the koan on Cong Shen's (namely, Zhao Zhou) duster in Section 1, Chapter Four below."

A monk asked Cong Shen, "How is spotlessly pure?" Replied, "Here does not keep itinerant laborers." Jian says, "Drive out this itinerant laborer; why need to be spotlessly pure?"

A monk asked Chan teacher Xian of Ling Jiu, "How to obtain the Dharmakaya all at once?" "Once passed the Dragon Gate, look beyond the clouds; Do not become a Yellow River fish with marked forehead." Jian says, "The first sentence is still at the first stage; the second sentence belongs to the present stage of exit."

Lu Gen asked Pu Yuan, "An ancient raised a goose in a bottle. As the goose grew up, it could not get out of the bottle. Now, without breaking the bottle or damaging the goose, how could monk bring it out?" Pu Yuan called his name, "Minister Lu Gen!" Lu Gen answered, "Yes." Pu Yuan said, "Exited!" Jian says otherwise, "As you ask the question, the bottle has already been broken."

Yang Shan asked his junior classmate Xiang Yan about his view. Xiang Yan replied, "Last year's poverty was not poverty; this year's poverty is real poverty. Last year's poverty was without land to stand an awl. This year's poverty is without even an awl." Jian says, "This belongs to the present stage of exit. Thereafter Yang Shan commented, 'You have attained only the Tathagata Chan, but not the Patriarchal Chan,' thereby ridiculing Xiang Yan for not attaining the great opportune use; this, however, belongs to the third stage of use."

Yang Shan asked Shuang Feng about his recent view. Shuang Feng answered, "There is not a thing confronting the sentiments." Yang Shan said, "The understanding is in the environment." Shuang Feng said, "How is elder brother's intention?" "Don't you know one to whom there is not a thing confronting the sentiments?" Jian says, "What Yang Shan called 'one to whom there is not a thing confronting the sentiments' is the mind clinging to such a state; this mind included should be exited."

Chan teacher Zhi Qin saw peach blossoms and attained comprehension; he said, "Ever since then there is no doubt whatsoever." Gui Shan thereupon told him to take care of it. And yet Xuan Sha said, "Dare to guarantee that old brother is not thorough." Xuan Sha then asked Gui Chen about this; Gui Chen said, "If it were not for Gui Chen, would walk to death people under the sky." Jian says, "What Gui Chen meant was, if it were not the case that Gui Chen could exit himself, would walk to death people under the sky. Xuan Sha dared to guarantee that Zhi Qin was not thorough because Zhi Qin himself clearly had one who does not doubt, how could that be thorough? This koan was cited before in Section 2, Chapter Two. Readers may go back to see in comparison."

A monk asked Ying Tian, "How is monk's Buddha Nature?" "What do you call as Buddha Nature?" "Thus, monk has no Buddha Nature?" "Joyful! Joyful!" Jian says, "It can be deduced from this that the Dharma joy of the second stage of exit is far exceeding that of the first stage of entrance."

Wang Jing Chu, the Imperial Attendant, was reviewing official businesses at his desk when monk Mi came. Wang thereupon raised his pen. Mi said, "Still could pass judgment on the empty sky or not?" Wang threw down his pen, went into the parlor, and would not come out again. Mi sent a man to eavesdrop on Wang and heard Wang saying, "Lion bites people, while hunting dog chases a lump of earth." Mi thereupon became greatly angered. Jian says, "Mi at that time held on to the empty sky, thus fell among the kind of a hunting dog." Says instead otherwise, "The king's laws are too strict; nobody can abide by them. Why not resign from the post and retire?"

Fa Zhen saw a monk leaving on pilgrimage to salute Samantabhadra, thereupon he raised his duster and said, "Manjusri and Samantabhadra are always here." The monk drew a circle by hand, threw the circle to the back, and then prostrated to Fa Zhen. Fa Zhen said, "Attendant! Fetch a cup of tea for this monk." Jian says, "Had he not thrown it to the back, how could he deserve receiving this cup of tea?"

A monk newly arrived. He asked Hui Jue, "Coming from afar to depend on you; how is your intention?" Hui said, "The government is very strict; no arrangement is allowed." "Isn't there some way to bypass the regulations?" "Temporarily spend the night in the kitchen." Jian says, "No arrangement is allowed; that is the expression on the part of the teacher at the present stage of exit. One should be able to evacuate oneself from this subjective position. Zhao Zhou said, 'Where there is no Buddha, pass over quickly.' An ancient poet said in his Ode to the Fisherman: 'Cannot be bound by the position of a Buddha or Patriarch; When night comes still sleep among the reeds.'"

Superior Seat Hua came; Chan teacher Ri Rong clapped hands thrice and said, "A ferocious tiger is in the way of a wagon; who is its opponent?" Hua said, "A large falcon soars straight up to the sky; who can catch it?" Ri Rong said, "Both are difficult to cope with." Hua said, "Rest for now; this koan is still unresolved." Ri Rong, swinging his cane, returned to the abbot chamber. Hua said, "This fellow is already dead!" Jian says instead, "I do not ride you, this dead tiger."

A nun arrived at monk Ju Zhi's place. Wearing a bamboo hat and holding a cane in her hand, she circumambulated the teacher thrice and said, "If can say, then will take off the bamboo hat." Asked thrice, all had no reply; the nun left immediately. Ju therefore asked monk Tian Long. Tian Long raised one finger to show him, thereupon he greatly comprehended. Since then, whenever a monk arrived, he simply raised one finger to receive him, without saying anything else. Jian says, "All those above belong to the first stage, but not adequate answers to the nun's question. Were Jian there, would say otherwise, 'How many have been buried under the bamboo hat?' Then it would belong to the present stage." There is another koan on "bamboo hat" in Section 1 of Chapter Two. Readers may go back to see the contrast.

While planting pine trees, Huang Bo asked Yi Xuan [Lin Ji] "What is the use of planting so many pine trees here deep in the mountains?" "First, to leave an ancient monument to posterity, and second, to enhance the appearance of the arch gate leading to the monastery." Having said thus, he beat the ground thrice with his shovel. Huang said, "Even so, you have already received my caning." Yi again beat the ground thrice and shushed. Jian says, "Both ancient monument and enhancing the appearance are not means of livelihood; only exiting through shushing would do." Therefore, Huang Bo continued, "My School comes down to you, only then this gesture comes into existence." What is called exit at the present stage is simply this.

Venerable old hand Chen heard that an old practitioner was difficult to get along with, so he went into the latter's chamber. The old practitioner shouted at first sight of him. Chen slanted his palm and said, "A double koan!" The old practitioner said, "Where is the error?" Chen said, "This wild fox spirit!" and retired. Jian says, "Mocked him for not understanding to exit."

Huang Bo asked Chu Nan, "How were you before displaying images in the three realms?" "Even now could it be existent?" "Put aside existent or not; how is it now?" "Neither present nor ancient." Huang said, "My Dharma eye is already in your body." Chu Nan later presided over Bao En Monastery in Gu Su for twenty odd years without taking a single step outside the door. Jian says, "The ancients also considered it an important condition to know the existent. What is meant by 'could it be existent' above is simply disclaiming what has been entered as existent. As to the existent of knowing what is existent, it belongs to the third stage of use, where great opportune use is considered as wondrous existent." Readers will learn about this by studying the koans listed in Chapter Four on the stage of use.

While Ling Guan was drawing water a monk came to seek instruction. He thereupon showed him the horizontal shaft; the monk then went away. In the evening, Ling Guan asked about the monk and learned that he had left. Ling said, "Only got one stick."

A monk asked monk Zhao, "How is it when there is no cloud in the sky for thousands of miles?" Zhao said, "Even the blue sky should be caned." Jian says, "He who sits in the center of the empty sky without understanding to exit, should each come to receive the caning. However, if you have not gone through the attainment of the first stage, you are not even qualified for receiving these blows."

A monk asked Miao Ji, "How is the path that is frequently trodden by thousands of sages?" Miao Ji said, "Definitely invisible!"

A monk asked Bao Shou, "How about trampling down the city of mirage?" Bao Shou said, "A dead fellow is not to be chopped!" The monk said, "Chop!" Bao Shou thereupon gave him a beating. Jian says otherwise, "Vacate the subjective position, and chopping becomes superfluous."

A monk asked Yan Zhao, "How about a bright moon in the sky?" Yan said, "Not to roll across the sky, arbitrarily buried somewhere underground." Again, "Not up in the round sky, temporarily stay confined at You Li."

A monk asked Dao Wu, "What is said to be a wonderful and mysterious saying?" Dao said, "Don't say that I understand Buddha Dharma." The monk said, "Nevertheless, this learner is still riddle with doubt." "Why not ask old monk?" "I have asked already." "Go away! Not a place for you to stay." Jian says, "This last sentence was so clearly and kindly said, and yet rare are those who can comprehend its significance!"

Tian Ran paid a visit to National Master Zhong, and asked the attendant, "Present or not?" "Indeed present, but not seeing visitors." Tian said, "Too abysmal!" The attendant said, "Look through Buddha eye also could not see." Tian said, "Dragon begets dragon offsprings; phoenix begets phoenix offsprings." Jian says, "Readers try to ponder: Was Tian Ran mocking or praising this couple of teacher and disciple? Abysmal is due to lack of exit. Like father, like son; those words about dragon and phoenix were in mockery. That is why later, when the National Master woke up from a nap and heard it, he caned the attendant. Tian Ran heard this, then said, 'Unmistakably called the National Master from Nan Yang.' This remark then was genuinely in praise of the National Master."

The next day, Tian Ran again called on National Master Zhong. Once met, Tian Ran began to spread out his sitting mat. The National Master said, "No need! No need!" Tian Ran stepped back. The National Master said, "As such! As such!" And yet Tian moved forward. The National Master said, "Not so! Not so!" Tian Ran circled the National Master once and exited. The National Master said, "It is distant in time from the ancient sages, most people are idle and lazy. Thirty years later, it would even be difficult to find this fellow." Jian says, "The National Master Hui Zhong of Nan Yang used to stay in Dang Zi Valley of Bai Ya Mountain for forty odd years without coming down the hills. Emperor Su Zong of Tang Dynasty honored him as the National Master. That was more than a thousand years ago, which is many, many times the thirty years mentioned. The Master said only that most people are idle and lazy, but not that people lack intelligence. Nowadays ordinary arrogant and deluded people do not apply themselves diligently, but show off with endless debates. The situation is within what was apprehended well in advance by the National Master. Alas! How sad! How painful!"

A monk from Jiang Ling called on Da Chuan. After prostration in reverence, he stood to one side. Da Chuan asked, "When started from Jiang Ling?" The monk picked up the sitting mat. Da Chuan said, "Thank you for coming from afar; retire!" The monk thereupon left. Da Chuan said, "If it weren't like this, how could know the eyes in detail?" The monk clapped hands and said, "What a shame! Almost misjudged people everywhere." Later the monk told the incident to Tian Ran. Tian Ran said, "It was all right only with Da Chuan's Dharma path; here at my place it is not so." "How?" "Three more steps than Da Chuan." The monk prostrated in reverence. Tian Ran said, "Those who have misjudged people everywhere are many." Jian says, "Readers may ponder on this koan together with the preceding one."

A monk asked Yuan Zhi, "Why is it difficult to find the footprints of Bodhisattvas who are without supernatural powers?" Yuan said, "Only those who pursues the same path would know." "Monk knows or not?" "Don't know." "Why not?" "You do not understand my saying." Jian says, "This so said 'don't know' is not the ignorance of ordinary fools. Here you are not allowed to have any knowledge, nor any ignorance or mistake."

Dong Shan arrived at Ming Zhe. Ming asked, "Where did you leave recently?" "Hu Nan." "What is the last name of the Circuit Intendant there?" "No last name." "First name?" "No first name." "Does he still attend to official business or not?" "Naturally there is the staff." "Even without going in and out?" Dong Shan thereupon flicked his sleeves and exited. The next day Ming Zhe said, "Yesterday Acarya did not respond fluently. Please say it today. If you can say it, I shall offer the meal and have your company for the summer." Dong Shan said, "Too noble." Ming Zhe thereupon ordered meals to be served. Jian says, "His question of 'even without going in and out' drove people to a dead end. Dong Shan then could only finish it by leaving, but could not respond in speech. The next day Ming Zhe pressed again for a response in speech before breakfast; Dong Shan's reply came right out from his mouth. If one indeed could escape from falling into 'being noble' and applies lively, then it would already approach the third stage of use."

A monk arrived at Xian Tian and immediately prostrated in reverence. Xian Tian said, "Wild fox ghost! What have you seen that you prostrate immediately?" The monk said, "Old bald slave! What have you seen that you ask like this?" Xian Tian said, "Bitter! Bitter! Today Xian Tian forgets the past and loses the future." The monk said, "What is more, the gain would eventually not compensate for the loss." Xian Tian said, "And yet that is not so?" The monk said, "Who?" Xian Tian thereupon laughed audibly and said, "That is certainly far from it." Jian adds, "Could it be helped that the heels are still not on solid ground!" Some people hold on to the words "what" or "who" as abolishing both the inside and the outside, and yet they are dead stuck in the intangible puzzle of the word "who" without understanding to exit, not to mention the great opportune use based on heels on solid ground.

A monk came to learn from De Shan; De closed the door. The monk knocked on the door; De asked, "Who?" The monk said, "A lion cub." De thereupon opened the door, rode on his neck and asked, "Where does the beast come and go?" The monk had no reply. Jian says instead, "Came on its own without being ridden!" While saying so, pulls De down. Wouldn't it be most gratifying? The reason being not afraid of the ferocity of a lion, only afraid of riding a lion but cannot get off its back.

A monk called on Da Tong and said, "Carrying a piece of uncut jade to the teacher; please cut and polish it." Da said, "Not for materials suitable for ridgepoles and beams." The monk said, "In that case, Bian He [referring to a person who carried a piece of uncut jade] would have no place for advancement." Da said, "Carrying is lonely and laborious." "Not carrying, how?" "Not to advise you to carry uncut jade to a teacher for cutting and polishing." Jian says, "'Carrying is lonely and laborious' has spelled out the reasons for the exit stage."

A monk asked Da Tong, "'In heaven and under the sky, only I am supreme'; how is I?" Da said, "What would be the offense for overthrowing the teacher?" Jian says, "Now and then some Chan teachers would preach: 'Stand atop high mountains, and walk on deep ocean floor.' They would employ this Divine Self which encompasses heaven and earth to harm all sentient beings. Ordinary 'blind' fellows would hold fast to this; it would be most difficult to exit. Overthrowing such a teacher is not only blameless but also saving his wisdom life. Such would be real descendants of Sakyamuni."

A monk asked Da Tong, "How was it before Bodhidharma came?" "All over heaven and earth." "How is it after he came?" "Cannot be covered." Jian says, "It should be known that, that which cannot be covered is not within heaven and earth."

A monk asked Ru Na, "Not a thought arises, how?" Ru said, "What could that be used for?" The monk had no reply. Ru said, "Having penetrated the Dragon Gate, clouds and rain converge; Mountains, rivers and the great earth are all entered without a trace."

Liang Jia said, "Even saying that originally there is not a thing still does not deserve the robe and bowl; being able to make a turning remark at this juncture, then would do." A monk made ninety-six remarks, all failed to match. Finally he got one. Another monk wanted to obtain this remark, after three years of waiting on him still could not get it, he then threatened him with a knife. The monk said, "Even when fetched, there would still be no place to stay." Jian says, "At the present stage of exit, this meaning could temporarily be allowed to deserve the robe and bowl. In my humble opinion, however, to deserve the robe and bowl should know about use. He who knows only the emptiness, but not the haveness, still does not deserve the robe and bowl." Jian therefore says otherwise instead, "Thanks to monk for kindness; I have not let him spend time in vain."

A monk asked Xue Feng, "Relying on the Buddha to become a monk, why not recognize the Buddha?" "Good events are inferior to no events."

A monk asked Xue Feng, "Tranquil without dependence, how?" "Without dependence is still sick." "How is it after turning around?" "A boat sailing down to Yang Zhou."

A monk asked Yuan An, "When thousands of movements are not different from such an absorption, how?" "A smart crane soars beyond the empty sky, while a dull bird leaves not the nest."

A monk asked Yuan An, "The learner returns to home town, how?" "Home is in wreckage and folks are all dead; where would you return to?" "In that case, will not go back." "The remainder snow in the yard will be dissolved by the sun; the floating dust in the room should send whom to sweep?"

A monk asked, "Who may eat the food of the Gandhara Buddha Kingdom?" Yuan An replied, "Should know that even those who may eat such food should be supported to exit."

A monk asked Ben Ji, "How is a perpetually present person?" "Just when Cao Shan [Ben Ji] is temporarily out." "How is a perpetually absent person?" "Difficult to get."

A monk asked Ben Ji, "How to maintain?" Ben said, "As if passing through a water contaminated with the poison of Ku, not even a drop of it can be contacted."

A monk asked, "How is the master of the Dharmakaya?" Ben Ji said, "Said that in the country Qin there is no human." "Isn't this one it?" "Chop!"

A monk asked Ben Ji, "Who is constantly in the ocean of life and death?" "The second moon." "Still pursues escape or not?" "Also pursues escape, just that there is no path." "Who can receive the escapees?" "One who carries an iron cang."

A monk asked Bao Gai, "Who lives in a leakproof house?" "Without name and not attached to a body." "Still has a position or not?" "Not to stay."

A monk asked, "One arrow shooting through three passes?" Wen Sui replied, "Release the master of the pass to see." "If so, then errors recognized would certainly be rectified." "When else to wait for?" "What a fine arrow, with no place to target," right then the monk exited. Wen Sui called him and said, "Try to shoot the arrow for one." The monk remained silent for a long while and then retreated. Wen Sui gave him seven blows with a cane and said, "Let a confusing fellow doubt it for thirty years." Someone cited this incident to Tong An. Tong said, "Although the arrow was shot, the point is that it missed the target." "How to hit the target?" Tong said, "Who is the master of the pass?" Jian says, "Wen Sui had clearly said to release the master of the pass; since the master had been released, without a target how could it hit?"

Jing Qing asked, "Sky cannot cover, earth cannot carry, isn't that it?" Shi Yan replied, "If that is it, then it is covered." Jian says, "The so-called exit is not only to exit the state entered at the first stage, but also to exit the mind that can enter. This koan has expressed it quite obviously. It may be pondered over along with the other koan in this section where a monk asked Da Tong about the state of affairs before and after the coming of Bodhidharma."

A monk asked, "How about encompassing thousand miles as one breath?" Dao Xian said, "Loaf beyond the court while seeing a guest off."

A monk asked Shi Bei, "How is the learner himself?" Shi Bei said, "What is the use of one's self?"

Shi Bei asked Jiao Ran, "Vimalakirti observed the Buddha. Future does not come, past does not leave, and present does not stay; how to observe?" "Please let Jiao Ran pass; there is something to discuss." Shi Bei said, "Why need to discuss?" Jiao then remained silent for a long while. Shi said, "Who is supposed to understand this?" Jiao said, "It's a waste of time to listen." Shi said, "I know that you are making a plan for living toward the den of ghosts."

Xuan Sha (i.e., Shi Bei) asked Jing Qing, "It is a great mistake not to see a dharma; not seeing which dharma?" Jing Qing, pointing at a pillar in front of the main hall, said, "Isn't it this dharma?" Xuan said, "The clean water and white rice of Xi area may be freely partaken by you; as to Buddha Dharma you have not comprehended." Jian says, "Xuan Sha was a great Chan master who had attained great use; everywhere he pointed out the exit, teaching people to jump out of the ghost den and place heels on the ground. He was indeed an exemplary figure of the third stage of use. Heard that there was a special collection of Xuan Sha koans; unfortunately it has not been included in the Tripitaka. Even after many attempts at looking for such a book in used book bookstores, it simply could not be found. Besides Grandma Ling and Zhao Zhou, this person has a great deal of admiration for Xuan Sha. Let this matter be put aside for now. After all, not seeing which dharma? Readers try to ponder. Did not Xuan Sha say, 'Clean water and white rice may be freely partaken by you'? The intention belongs to the third stage of use. For the present stage, it is only necessary to upset this pillar in front of the main hall."

Xuan Sha made a tour to the south. The people of Pu Tian welcomed him with a special performance of all sorts of acrobatics. The next day he saw Elder Xiao Tang and said, "Yesterday such clamor, where has it gone to?" Xiao Tang lifted a corner of his robe. Xuan said, "It is expected that it would be irrelevant." Jian says otherwise, "Yesterday, today; what kind of talk. I have never reminisced."

A monk asked, "How is it when the learner bears it right away?" Xing Sheng replied, "How do you bear it?" Fa Deng replied otherwise, "Do not waste the effort." Jian says, "One frequently comes across many words about bearing it in books on Chan. They are all temporary devices for the first stage, and are no longer permissible at the present stage."

Lin Quan called on Ci Guang. Guang saw him leaving, extended a hand to support Lin down the steps and said, "Slowly now, don't slip and fall." Lin said, "What if suddenly slip and fall?" Ci said, "No longer need to support with a hand." Lin broke into a hearty laugh. Jian says, "Pang Yun fell, his daughter did the same. Pang asked her; she replied, 'Just to give you a hand.' This support was by body; it is just the same as Ci Guang's by saying 'no need to support.'"

A monk asked Zhao Hua, "How is it when sleeping alone on an isolated peak?" "Seven monks' quarters are unoccupied but you don't sleep therein; who told you to sleep alone on an isolated peak?" Jian says, "Turn back and read the koans in Chapter Two: 'sit atop very high mountain' and 'there is not a blade of grass for thousands of miles,' the differences in depth in the order of the first and second stages may be compared."

A monk asked, "No Buddha, no sentient beings; how?" Huai Yun replied, "Who is like this?"

A monk asked, "Having swallowed the water of hundred rivers, only then a bit of mind is understood; how?" Ling Jue replied, "Although the hairy cloth has been taken off, the scale and shell are still worn." Jian says otherwise, "Why not swallow up even this bit of mind?"

Yue Lun asked his disciple Tong Quan, "Mt. Jing is beautiful where Bian He arrived; the emperor obtained the jade seal through him; how?" "A clever crane does not rest under the trees; country folks do not value a peaceful year."

Dao Kuang asked, "Where does monk come from?" "From chopping firewood." "Is there still something that cannot be chopped up?" "There is." "How?" The monk had no reply. Dao said, "Why not ask me?" The monk thereupon asked. Dao said, "Cheating to such an extent!"

A monk asked, "How to connect when one seems to be two?" Xiang Cheng replied, "One is cheating to such an extent!" Jian says, "The two occurrences of 'cheating' in this and the previous koans refer to the same problem - unwilling to exit."

A monk asked, "Does one who is present all hours around the clock deserve the offerings of men and gods?" Shou Pi said, "Deserves not." "Why?" "Because you are always present."

Gu Shan went on an invitation from the Great King. Xue Feng saw him to the gate, and, upon his returning to the Dharma Hall, said, "A divine arrow has already shot straight into the nine-circled city." Superior Seat Fu said, "In his case, not yet." Feng said, "He is a thorough man." Fu said, "Let one go to check it over." Fu then caught up with Gu Shan on the way and asked, "Elder brother in the Dharma, where are you going toward?" "Into the nine-circled city." Fu said, "Suddenly encounter being encircled by an army, how?" Shan said, "His household definitely has a path leading up to the sky." Fu said, "In this case, then it would have been leaving palaces and losing imperial halls." Shan said, "Where wouldn't be proclaimed the supreme lord?" Fu flicked his sleeves and right then returned. Feng asked, "How?" Fu said, "What a divine arrow! it has been broken at midway!" Thereupon recited the earlier conversation. Feng thereupon said, "There are his words." Fu said, "This old frozen pus has yet sentiments for native land." Jian says, "Mocking that both of them were trapped by nobility and understood not to exit."

Commissioner Lu asked Nan Quan (i.e., Teacher Wang), "What is the family name?" Nan said, "Last name is Wang [king]." "Still has family and retinue or not?" "The four attending officials are not ignorant." Lu said, "Which position does the king occupy?" "The jade palace is overgrown with moss." "When the jade palace is overgrown with moss, how?" "Not occupying the rightful position." Jian says, "Not occupying the rightful position is the main theme of the present stage of exit." Later Shi Lin Gong made the following ode on this episode:

Not occupying the rightful position, the jade palace overgrown with moss;
The four attending officials have no way to offer their fine plans.
Do old farmers know whose power it is that enables
Their singing in warm breeze that accompanies their moving hoes?

A monk came forward, made prostration, walked backward and stood. Hong Ren said, "I am inferior to you." The monk consented. Hong said, "Let go where there is no man."

A monk asked, "Heaven and earth pay no attention, the universe is careless; how is it?" Zong Hui replied, "Fog rises at Xian Shan Pavilion; a steep shoal does not detain boats."

A monk asked, "The ancients, once recognized the path of Cao Xi [where the sixth patriarch resided], thoroughly understood that life and death are irrelevant. Cao Xi would not be asked about; how is the path of Luo Shan?" Yi Yin of Luo Shan thereupon spread out his hands. The monk said, "Thus, one path is passable, so are all other paths?" "What other paths?" The monk came forward. Yi said, "A smart crane is beyond the clouds; a silly bird does not leave its nest." Jian says, "This answer sounds exactly the same as the one made by Yuan An; see above."

A monk among Jia Shan's assembly went to visit Shi Shuang and said, "Not paying attention." Shi said, "No need." The monk then went to Yan Tou's place and also said, "Not paying attention." Yan said, "S-s-sh." The monk stepped back. Yan said, "Although a young man, also can take care." Jia Shan said, "Shi Shuang although had a knife that could kill people, yet no sword that would revive people." Jian says, "To learn more about the sword that revives people, just look at the third stage of use."

Nan Quan was gathering rice not well-cooked and said, "Sheng (raw) rice." [In Chinese, the character Sheng has both the meanings of "raw" and "born."] Zhi Jian said, "No Sheng (born)." Nan Quan said, "Non-born is still the tip."

A monk asked, "Now that he is called a river god, why is he yet pushed around by waves?" Da Lang replied, "The marvelous is attained only by floating along the stream; Sticking to the bank would get lost." Jian says, "Sticking to the bank would get lost, hence it is necessary to exit. This is the principal theme of the present stage. After having exited, if it were not to result in vain, it is necessary to attain the marvelous by floating along the stream. This has already entered the third stage of use as presented in Chapter Four. Therefore, this koan is cited here to conclude the present stage of exit."

Section 2 Examples of Conditions for Attainment at the Present Stage

Pei Xiu entered the Da An Vihara, saw the mural painting of a sage monk, and asked, "The true countenance is awe-inspiring; where would the sage monk be?" Hence Huang Bo called, "Prime Minister Pei!" Pei responded. Huang then asked him, "Where is?" Hearing that, Pei greatly comprehended.

A monk called on Hua Lin. Right after his sitting mat was spread out, Hua said, "Slowly." The monk said, "What does monk see?" Hua said, "It is a pity to knock break the bell tower." The monk thereupon greatly comprehended. Jian says, "The comprehension hinged on the breaking but not on the tower, therefore the koan belongs to the present stage."

De Shan Xuan Jian called on Long Tan [Dragon Pool] and said, "Black dragon." Long Tan thereupon lit a candle and gave it to De. De was going to receive it when Long abruptly blew its light out. De then prostrated. Long said, "See what?" De said, "From now on, no longer doubt the tongues of old monks under the sky." Jian says, "If De Shan received the candle then and remained dead in its brilliance, how would he ever know the marvel of the black dragon?"

Monk Lou Zi went by a cabaret while walking downtown. He stopped there a short while just to rearrange his stockings; then he heard someone upstairs singing: "Since you have no Xin [heart], nor have I!" [In Chinese the character Xin means both "heart" and "mind"; hence what the monk heard could also be understood as: "Since you have no mind, nor have I!"] All of a sudden, he greatly comprehended.

Qing Huo attained an exit at Da Zhang's place. Shui Long assembled the monks for Qing Huo to tell them his state of comprehension. After Qing Huo had offered incenses, he said, "The offering of incense is done. Comprehension is no comprehension."

Section 3 Selected Koans with Different-Stage Answers

Section 3.1 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "The Intention of Bodhidharma's Coming from the West"

A Monk asked Su Xuan, "How was the intention of Bohdhidharma's coming from the West?" Replied, "Understanding is no understanding; doubting is no doubting." Again, "Not understanding what is not doubted; not doubting what is not understood." Jian says, "The emphasis of the exit stage is on 'Not understanding what is not doubted.'"

A monk asked Dao Qin, replied, "Wait until after I will have passed away to tell you."

Yang Shan asked Gui Shan, replied, "What a fine lantern!" Yang said, "Isn't it just this one?" Gui said, "What this one?" Yang said, "What a fine lantern." Gui said, "Certainly not recognizing it."

A monk asked Long Yun, Chan teacher Tai replied, "Last night old monk lost some cattle in the corral."

A monk asked Zhao Zhou. Zhou got off the Chan couch and stood. The monk said, "Isn't this it?" Zhao Zhou said, "Old monk did not say a word."

A monk asked practitioner Tian of Lu Shan, replied, "Wherefrom was the question obtained?"

A monk ask Yi Zhong, replied, "A duster made of tortoise hair, a cane made of hare horn, where would Great Virtuous hide them?" "Tortoise hair, hare horn, how could there be?" "Flesh weighs ten catties, the weight of intelligence is negligible."

A monk asked Dao Ying, replied, "On the ancient path none is encountered."

A monk asked Ju Dun, replied, "Wait until the stone tortoise knows how to speak to tell you." The monk said, "The stone tortoise has spoken." Replied, "What were you told?"

A monk asked Xuan Tong, replied: "Bone-biting fellow, get out!"

A monk asked Yong Ping, replied, "Not to scatter sand."

A monk asked Qing Zhu, Qing said, "A slab of stone in midair." The monk prostrated to thank him. Qing asked, "Have you understood?" The monk replied, "Not understood." "Fortunately that you do not understand. If you did, I would have hit and broken your head."

Section 3.2 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Family Style"

A monk asked Ru Min about his family style, replied, "A decayed house with no one to repair it."

Yun Yan asked Yuan Zhi, replied, "Could let you point at, what could that do?" "Long since been without this." "The root of teeth still retains an astringent taste."

A monk asked Dao Kuang, replied, "Rather be poor and clean to enjoy oneself, than rich and dirty to worry much."

A monk asked Yan Zhao, replied, "A crane in deep water would have difficulty taking off; a horse without a long journey would casually chase the wind." Jian says, "Compare this koan with the first stage koan 'Sheng Nian's family style' in which Sheng replied, 'in front of a ten thousand fathom cliff,' and the difference in depths of attainment would be learned. Therefore, Jian commented on that koan as being too high sounding. Readers might go back to read it again."

Section 3.3 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Ox Herding"

Tian You wrote a gatha on ox herding as follows:

Two horns pointing to the sky,
Four feet standing on the earth,
Pull apart the rein,
What dung and fart to herd!

A monk asked, "This one loves to kill cattle, has sin or not?" Hui Jue replied, "No sin." "Why?" "Kill one, still one." Jian says, "Only afraid that killing one, dying one. Therefore, the main theme of this stage is to break up that which sits in death. Hence, an ancient virtuous said, 'Large ocean does not retain corpse.'"

Section 3.4 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Duster"

Yang Shan went to learn from Yan Tou. Yan raised the duster; Yang spread the sitting mat. Yan threw the duster to the back; Yang retrieved the sitting mat. Yan said, "Not approve of your spreading, only approve of your retrieving." Jian says, "The first half aims at the first stage, while the second half aims at the present stage. Yan Tou's 'only approve of your retrieving' emphasizes on the present stage; where the eyes gaze at is very obvious."

Xue Feng asked a monk arriving from Jiang Xi, "How far apart is Jiang Xi and here?" "Not far." Xue raised the duster and said, "Still set apart by this one?" "If set apart by this one, then far." Xue immediately beat him. Jian says, "Beating him for not going beyond this one." Jian says instead, 'Although not set apart by this one, I would not fetch it along.' Then the beating could be avoided."

Da Jue arrived at Yi Xuan. Yi raised the duster; Da Jue spread the sitting mat. Yi threw down the duster; Da Jue retrieved the sitting mat and went into the monks' quarters. The congregation said, "Isn't this monk a relative or old acquaintance of monk? He did not prostrate and was not beaten." The teacher called Da Jue out and said, "The assembly said that you did not pay respect to the Elder." Da Jue said, "Don't care," and went back into the congregation. This "don't care" belongs to the present stage of exit. However, resting under "don't care" may still be given a beating. What is the reason? If Jian were there, would reproach him by saying, "As to caring, may let you care not, and yet the Elder should not be slighted." This purport is at the third stage of use. Were Da Jue truly a smart monk, he could then answer, "It is not difficult to prostrate; how could people be helped from misunderstanding it? A good event is inferior to no events." Then he could still leave with a flourish of his sleeves; it would have belonged to the fourth stage of finish. Readers should first finish reading the entire book, understand thoroughly the principal themes of the four stages, and then compare the various answers given at the four stages to the same koans as cited in Chapters Two to Five. They would realize the difference in depths of attainment. This matter definitely should not be taken in a muddling manner.

Section 3.5 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Glancing Sutra"

Yang Shan asked Shan Dao, "Still go through reading the doctrines or not?" "A matter beyond one's lot. However, if one were against it, that would also be arrogant wisdom and not worthy of being a path. If one were not against it, then there is no problem at all."

Yan Tou read the Parinirvana Sutra and said that there are two, three paragraphs similar to this monk's sayings. Again, he said, "Stop! Stop!" A monk asked him to cite one such paragraph. Yan said, "It is said, 'The meaning of my teachings is like a poison-smeared drum. One sound from it will kill all, far and near.'"

Section 3.6 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Sending a Letter"

A monk was going to the Kai Yuan Monastery, therefore, Xin Jian said, "I have a letter for the abbot, can you fetch it along or not?" The monk said, "Please do." Xin said, "Thought that you also could not manage it."

Section 3.7 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Mind"

Bao Zhi's "Eulogy to Mahayana" reads:

Klesa arises because of mind;
Without mind, where would Klesa dwell?
No need to differentiate and select forms,
Naturally attain the Tao in a twinkling.

Nan Quan said, "Mind is not Buddha; wisdom is not Tao."

Lin Ji said, "If mind is absent, wherever would be liberated."

Dhrtaka, the Fifth Patriarch of India, said, "Having comprehended is the same as not yet comprehended; no mind and no dharma [thing]."

Hui Man said, "All Buddhas talked about mind to show the delusive nature of its manifestations. The present day emphasizes on the manifestations of mind is very much against the intention of Buddhas."

The Sixth Patriarch said, "No mind in everything is the precept of one's nature." Again,

Without thoughts, thought is right,
With thoughts, thought becomes devious;
With or without, both are not taken into account,
Long drive the white ox cart.

Hui Zhong said, "Neither dirty nor clean; why need to think about watching the clean manifestations?"

Huai Hai said, "Not seeking the Buddha; not seeking knowledge and understanding; the sentiments of defilements and cleanliness are exhausted; not maintaining this 'no seeking,' nor abide at where exhausted."

The Second Patriarch asked Bodhidharma to pacify his mind. Bodhidharma said, "Fetch the mind for me to pacify it." The Second Patriarch said, "Looked for the mind and found it utterly unattainable." "Have finished pacifying the mind for you."

Section 3.8 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Body"

Pu Yuan told the assembly, "Teacher Wang would like to sell the body; who could buy it?" A monk said, "This one." Pu said, "It is not set at a high price, nor at a low price; how do you buy it?"

A monk asked Wen Yan, "All ingenuities are exhausted; how?" Replied, "Remove the Buddha Hall for me, then I will discuss it with you." The monk said, "How could it be related to the Buddha Hall?" Wen Yan thereupon shouted at him saying, "This liar!" Readers may refer to Section 3.8 of the previous chapter for the Buddha Hall.

Section 3.9 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Environment"

A monk asked Yan Zong about the environment of Chao Shan, replied, "Not for corpses to stay overnight."

Jia Shan asked Fo Ri, "Where were you before you came to Yun Ju?" Replied, "The Guo Qing Monastery on the Tian Tai Mountain." Jia Shan asked again, "Tian Tai has murmuring cataracts, clean and clear waves. Thank you for coming from afar; what would be your intention?" Fo thereupon said, "Having stayed long in steep valleys for a long time, no longer hang pine branches and vines." "This is still of the Springtime; how is that of the Autumn?" Fo Ri remained silent for a long while. Jia Shan thereupon commented on him, "It seems that you are only a boatman, eventually you would not be one who plays with the tides." Jian says, "'No longer hang pine branches and vines' in this koan is the theme of the present stage. As to 'one who plays with the tides,' Jia Shan meant to switch into the stage of use. Readers may read on in Chapter Four about this point."

Fa Yan asked Shao Xiu, "Among all phenomena alone reveal the body; push all phenomena or not?" Shao replied, "Not to push." Fa said, "What kind of talk about pushing or not pushing!" Shao returned to Di Zang. Di said, "You just went back not long ago, why did come?" "Having matters unsettled, how could one be afraid of the hardship of traveling?" Di said, "You have trudged over many mountains and rivers, and that was not so bad." Shao still not understood, thereupon he asked about pushing or not pushing. Di said, "What would you call as all phenomena?" Shao thereupon greatly comprehended. Jian says, "For persons of superior root, view and activity can be consistent; for persons of medium root, view is usually loftier than activity; for persons of inferior root, even view is incomplete. The first emphasis of the Chan School is on the view. Therefore, it is said, 'Just value your insight; not value your steps.' If what view has reached is not reached by activity, then one should engage in real quest and true comprehension, and definitely seek to achieve the unity of view and activity. In this koan, Shao Xiu's saying about 'not to push' indeed had already the insight of the third stage of use; however, he had not been able to exit from the duality of pushing or not pushing because he had not experienced the realization of the second stage of exit. Therefore, upon being pushed by Fa Yan, he still could not turn around. Furthermore, upon being asked by Di Zang, 'What would you call as all phenomena?' then he began to comprehend at the stage of exit. Therefore, a practitioner should first attain the measure of realization of the stage of exit, and then play around in 'not to push' which, even so called, is actually pushed already; even though it is said to be pushed already, it also does not dispense with playing around. Therefore, it always stays clear of the duality of pushing and not pushing; the body and all phenomena are not taken as one, nor as two."

Section 3.10 Exit Stage Answers to the Koan "Still Coming to the Feast?"

A monk asked Wu Xue, "Dan Xia burned up the wooden Buddha image; why does monk make offerings to the arahats?" "Burned, yet cannot be burned; offered, just let be offered." "Still come or not?" "Daily do you still eat or not?" The monk had no word to reply. Jian says, "'let be offered' has the flavor of the present stage of exit; 'Still eat or not?' is switching to the third stage of use, which was even more difficult for the monk. Therefore, Wu Xue said, 'There are but few smart monks.'"

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